ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-1This is Part 1 of 35 containing 5 Questions (Q. 1 to 5) with detailed explanation as expected in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Latest Syllabus updated in 2011
Deep study of these 175 questions shall be of great help in getting success in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam
Q. 1: How to differentiate between work-products and products?
A work-product is an intermediate deliverable required to create the final product. Work-products can be documentation or code. The code and associated documentation will become the product when the system is declared ready for release. In software development, work-products are generally created in a series of defined stages, from capturing a customer requirement, to creating the system, to delivering the system. These stages are usually shown as steps within a software development life cycle.
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Q. 2: What is the simple waterfall development model.
A simple development model is shown below. This is known traditionally as the waterfall model.
The waterfall model shown above shows the steps in sequence where the customer requirements are progressively refined to the point where coding can take place. This type of model is often referred to as a linear or sequential model. Each work-product or activity is completed before moving on to the next.
In the waterfall model, testing is carried out once the code has been fully developed. Once this is completed, a decision can be made on whether the product can be released into the live environment.
This model for development shows how a fully tested product can be created, but it has a significant drawback: what happens if the product fails the tests? Let us look at a simple case study.<<<<<< =================== >>>>>> Q. 3: At what point of time do we need to perform quality check during software development? In the waterfall model, the testing at the end serves as a quality check. The product can be accepted or rejected at this point.
Unlike in a mechanical manufacturing industry, in software development, it is not possible to simply reject the parts of the system found to be defective, and release the rest. The nature of software functionality is such that removal of software is often not a clean-cut activity - this action could well cause other areas to function incorrectly. It may even cause the system to become unusable.
In addition, we may not be able to choose not to deliver anything at all. The commercial and financial effects of this course of action could be substantial.
What is needed is a process that assures quality throughout the development life cycle. At every stage, a check should be made that the work-product for that stage meets its objectives. This is a key point, work-product evaluation taking place at the point where the product has been declared complete by its creator. If the work-product passes its evaluation (test), we can progress to the next stage in confidence. In addition, finding problems at the point of creation should make fixing any problems cheaper than fixing them at a later stage. This is the cost escalation model.
The checks throughout the life cycle include verification and validation.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 4: How do we distinctly apply verification and validation to work-products during software development?
The first is an extension to the waterfall model, known as the V-model.
The second is a cyclical model, where the coding stage often begins once the initial user needs have been captured. Cyclical models are often referred to as iterative models.
2) Iterative-Incremental Development Model
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