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    ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-1

    ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Crash Course Part-1

    This is Part 1 of 35 containing 5 Questions (Q. 1 to 5) with detailed explanation as expected in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam Latest Syllabus updated in 2011

    Deep study of these 175 questions shall be of great help in getting success in ISTQB Foundation Level Exam

    Q. 1: How to differentiate between work-products and products?

    A work-product is an intermediate deliverable required to create the final product. Work-products can be documentation or code. The code and associated documentation will become the product when the system is declared ready for release. In software development, work-products are generally created in a series of defined stages, from capturing a customer requirement, to creating the system, to delivering the system. These stages are usually shown as steps within a software development life cycle.

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    Q. 2: What is the simple waterfall development model.

    A development life cycle for a software product involves capturing the initial requirements from the customer, expanding on these to provide the detail required for code production, writing the code and testing the product, ready for release.

    A simple development model is shown below. This is known traditionally as the waterfall model.

    The waterfall model shown above shows the steps in sequence where the customer requirements are progressively refined to the point where coding can take place. This type of model is often referred to as a linear or sequential model. Each work-product or activity is completed before moving on to the next.

    In the waterfall model, testing is carried out once the code has been fully developed. Once this is completed, a decision can be made on whether the product can be released into the live environment.

    This model for development shows how a fully tested product can be created, but it has a significant drawback: what happens if the product fails the tests? Let us look at a simple case study.

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    Q. 3: At what point of time do we need to perform quality check during software development?

    In the waterfall model, the testing at the end serves as a quality check. The product can be accepted or rejected at this point.

    Unlike in a mechanical manufacturing industry, in software development, it is not possible to simply reject the parts of the system found to be defective, and release the rest. The nature of software functionality is such that removal of software is often not a clean-cut activity - this action could well cause other areas to function incorrectly. It may even cause the system to become unusable.

    In addition, we may not be able to choose not to deliver anything at all. The commercial and financial effects of this course of action could be substantial.

    What is needed is a process that assures quality throughout the development life cycle. At every stage, a check should be made that the work-product for that stage meets its objectives. This is a key point, work-product evaluation taking place at the point where the product has been declared complete by its creator. If the work-product passes its evaluation (test), we can progress to the next stage in confidence. In addition, finding problems at the point of creation should make fixing any problems cheaper than fixing them at a later stage. This is the cost escalation model.

    The checks throughout the life cycle include verification and validation.

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    Q. 4: How do we distinctly apply verification and validation to work-products during software development?

    Verification - checks that the work-product meets the requirements set out for it. An example of this would be to ensure that a website being built follows the guidelines for making websites usable by as many people as possible. Verification helps to ensure that we are building the product in the right way.
    Validation - changes the focus of work-product evaluation to evaluation against user needs. This means ensuring that the behavior of the work-product matches the customer needs as defined for the project. For example, for the same website above, the guidelines may have been written with people familiar with websites in mind. It may be that this website is also intended for novice users. Validation would include these users checking that they too can use the website easily. Validation helps to ensure that we are building the right product as far as the users are concerned.

    Testing helps to ensure that the work-products are being developed in the right way (verification) and that the product will meet the user needs (validation).

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    Q. 5: How many types of software development models do we have that facilitate early work-product evaluation?

    There are two types of development models that facilitate early work-product evaluation.

    The first is an extension to the waterfall model, known as the V-model.

    The second is a cyclical model, where the coding stage often begins once the initial user needs have been captured. Cyclical models are often referred to as iterative models.

    1) V-Model (Sequential Development Model)

    2) Iterative-Incremental Development Model

    Part - 2 of the Crash Course-ISTQB Foundation Exam

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